Amphetamine (AMPH)

CPT Code: 80101
Specimen: Urine
Volume: 30 mL
Container: Use plastic urine drug bottle and evidence tape or tamper-evident container for forensic specimen. Collection kits are available by request from the laboratory.

Urine specimens should be collected in clean, unbreakable, and leak proof containers.  Freshly voided urine specimens should be used.

Fresh urine specimens do not require any special pretreatment.  No additives or preservatives are required.  Boric acid should not be used as a preservative. 

Specimens may be encountered that display turbidity.  It is recommended that such specimens be centrifuged before analysis.

Specimens should be within the pH range of 5-8.  Specimens with a pH outside this range should be adjusted to this range by the addition of 1N HCl or 1N NaOH before analysis.

Specimens should be at a temperature of 20-25 ⁰C before analysis.

Stability: If not analyzed immediately, specimens should be stored refrigerated for less than 24 hours.  Specimens should be frozen if storage longer than 24 hours is required.
Cutoff: 300 ng/mL
Note: This method provides only a preliminary analytical test result.  A more specific alternate chemical method must be used in order to obtain a confirmed analytical result.  Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is the preferred confirmatory method.  Other chemical confirmation methods are available.  Clinical consideration and professional judgment should be applied to any drug of abuse test result, particularly when preliminary positive results are used.



Use: Measurements obtained with AMPH method are used in the diagnosis and treatment of amphetamines use or overdose.

Amphetamines are central nervous system stimulants that produce wakefulness, alertness, increased energy, reduced hunger, and overall feeling of well-being.  The term “amphetamine” includes many drugs, but d-amphetamine, d-methamphetamine (the N-methyl derivative of amphetamine) and d,l-amphetamine are the most common.  Amphetamines can be taken orally, intravenously, by smoking or by snorting.

Amphetamines are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and are then either deactivated by the liver or excreted unchanged in the urine.  The relative importance of these elimination modes depends on urinary pH.  Amphetamine is metabolized to deaminated (hippuric and benzoic acids) and hydroxylated metabolites.  Methamphetamine is partially metabolized to amphetamine, its major active metabolite. 

Amphetamines appear in the urine within three hours after any type of administration, and can be detected by this EMIT® assay for as long as 24-48 hours after the last dose. 

 Methodology:  EMIT®